الرئيسية / فيديو / كيف أسقطت إسرائيل المكوك كولومبيا والطائرة الروسية بسلاح H A A R P

كيف أسقطت إسرائيل المكوك كولومبيا والطائرة الروسية بسلاح H A A R P

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بقلم الدكتور / أمجد مصطفي
ست تجارب عسكرية في شرق المتوسط تهدف تطبيقات رد الفعل العسكري السريع من خلال تطبيقات علوم و تكنولوجيا بحوث طبقات الجو العليا ، ست تجارب منفصلة قام بها مكوك الفضاء كولومبيا.
إنه التجهيز المباشر لحرب الخليج بواسطة معدات محموله فضائيا عبر المكوك كولمبيا خلال STS-107
لقد تم إسقاط المكوك لضمان عدم وقوع البيانات عند نزوله على الأرض حيث تم الحفاظ على معلومات meidex فقط من خلال المحطات الأرضية
تجربة الغبار الإسرائيلية في شرق البحر الأبيض المتوسط (MEIDEX)

كانت المهمة الرئيسية للحمولة MEIDEX على متن المكوك كولومبيا لدراسة التوزيع الزمني والمكاني والخصائص الفيزيائية لغبار الصحراء في الغلاف الجوي على شمال أفريقيا ، والبحر الأبيض المتوسط والمحيط الأطلسي

وقد تحقق الهدف من التجربة للاستشعار عن بعد
أنها تجربة قام بها رواد الفضاء على متن المكوك لإنجاز أهداف MEIDEX

من خلال علوم الرصد المتنوعة كالرؤية الانعكاسية فوق سطح البحر، و الرصد السطحي الصحراء
و الملاحظات على تجارب البلو بيم المضيئة العابرة للحدود، والمعروف باسم العفاريت .

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إضافة لتجارب الإرسال و الإستقبال للأشعة الكهرومغناطيسية منخفضة الطاقة عبر الإتصالات الفضائية و الجوية و البحرية و الأرضية (LPT)
و دراسة آثر الغبار المعدني في طبقة الأوزون خلال تفاعلها مع موجات هارب ( منخفضة القيمة ) مع إمكانات حرب النجوم و ليزر تحت الحمراء – و تأثير طبقة أحزمة فان آلن السفلى .

في ست موجات بدءا من القريب للأشعة فوق البنفسجية إلى الأشعة تحت الحمراء
موجات الأشعة فوق البنفسجية 340 و 380 نانومتر
أربع موجات MODIS هي 440، 555، 660، 860 نانومتر و تعرف هذه الموجات بالمرشحات الضيقة ثم دراسة أعمدة الغبار الديناميكية مع حركة الكتل الهوائية عبر سلسلة من عمليات المحاكاة.

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راجع :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freestar_experiment

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تقرير إلى الاجتماع IRC في الندوة IAMAS، 8 / 10-19 / 2001 في انسبروك
http://www.irc-iamas.org/files/MEIDEX.doc

قام بالتجربة
فريق من قسم الجيوفيزياء وعلوم الكواكب في جامعة تل أبيب ، عبر التعاون بين اسرائيل ( isa ) والولايات المتحدة ( nasa )
قائمة أعضاء الفريق
===========
البروفيسور يواكيم H
يوسف (PI)
البروفيسور زيف ليفين. (PI)
البروفيسور يوري Mekler (شركة PI)
الكولونيل ايلان رامون (رائد)
البروفيسور اليعازر غانور (أخذ العينات والتحليل)
الدكتور آدم D. Devir (MEIDEX ( مدير)
الدكتور بيتر Israelevitch (تحليل Trajectorial المكوك، الاستشعار عن بعد)
الدكتور يورام Noter (السلامة والهندسة الميكانيكية)
الدكتور يؤاف يائير (منسق MEIDEX المشروع، العفاريت)
الدكتور باروخ زيف (تنبؤات الأرصاد الجوية)
السيد ايلان كورين (الاستشعار عن بعد)
السيد إدموند Klodzh (الاستشعار عن بعد)
السيد ديفيد Shtibelman (مدير الطائرات المحمولة، هندسة الإلكترونيات)
السيد أميت الصراف (منسق التجربة الطائرة، أخذ العينات والتحليل).

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******

The Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment _ MEIDEX

http://luna.tau.ac.il/~tomer/MEIDEX/english.htm

Report to the IRC Meeting at the IAMAS Symposium, 8/10-19/2001 in Innsbruck

by

Joachim H. Joseph

Dept. of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, TAU

Tel- Aviv 69978, Israel

e-mail: yoya@luna.tau.ac.il

In 1995, Mr. Shimon Peres, then the Prime Minister of Israel, and President Bill Clinton agreed that an Israeli astronaut would be flown on board a US space shuttle. It was also decided that the astronaut would be a payload specialist for a scientific experiment to be proposed by the Israeli Space Agency (ISA), approved by NASA. NASA and jointly carried out.

This agreement provided a great challenge to the Israeli space community. It was clear that this mission would be an opportunity to perform a full-scale Israeli space scientific experiment.

Thus, it was necessary to design a scientific program that would have a good chance to succeed and have a significant value to the Israeli scientific community as well as to NASA. At the same time, any proposed program would have to take into account all the restrictions imposed by a manned flight, namely, short mission duration, the availability of human and financial resources and the very limited time available for the preparation of the experiment.

The MEIDEX experiment, briefly described here, is Tel Aviv University’s reply to this challenge.

We chose, as the main goal of the first Israeli astronaut。ヌs flight, to study the transport of mineral dust in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean Sea and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. This choice was based on the important role which aerosols, especially desert dust, play in weather and climate conditions in many parts of the world and especially in our region. Many Israeli institutions and scientists, in particular at Tel Aviv University, have conducted intensive studies of this topic in the past. We possess a qualified staff in theoretical and experimental atmospheric sciences and remote sensing, which is able to carry out such a program. Moreover, a decision was made to complement the space borne remote sensing experiment with a large network of ground based as well as airborne in-situ measurements of aerosol properties. As a result, the proposed program is a comprehensive study of the chemical, physical and optical properties of desert aerosol transported over the Mediterranean and tropical Atlantic regions.

The project includes remote as well as in situ measurements of light scattering by desert aerosol particles in six wavelengths starting from near UV to solar IR. The experiment simulates the detection of dust aerosols by TOMS, using the UV wavelengths at 340 and 380 nm. Simultaneously, four MODIS wavelengths are included- 440, 555, 660, 860 nm. These wavelengths are defined with the help of narrow- band filters mounted on a rotating wheel. This assembly is included in a gimbal- mounted, fully calibrated radiometric and highly stable CCD camera (Xybion IMC-201), bore- sighted with a wide field Sekai video camera. The FOV。ヌs are 16 and 60 degrees respectively. The spatial resolution is about 200 m, at a flight altitude of 150 miles.

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One of the primary aims of the experiment is the optimization and inter- calibration of two of the primary current methods for the remote investigation of desert aerosols. Spectral channels of the MEIDEX radiometric camera include wavelengths of both TOMS and MODIS satellite experiments, simulating simultaneous observations of the same atmospheric volume containing desert aerosols by these two experiments. This will enable us to compare at high spatial resolution TOMS aerosol index with desert aerosol parameters obtained by MODIS-type analysis. These measurements will be supplemented by observations from airborne and surface platforms, enabling validation.

Space- borne observations of the same dust plumes on subsequent days (and subsequent orbits when it is possible) along with the airborne and ground- based support, will provide the details of dynamics of two dimensional distributions desert aerosol optical depth and particle sizes above the ROI.

Comparison of dust plumes dynamics with the motion of air masses will enable us to determine and localize the regions of desert aerosol sinks. We have also developed and tested a dust forecast method to plan our flights and other related activities. The forecast method is based on a meso- scale model, and applied to the region roughly between the East coast of Africa and Saudi Arabia and the Caribbean and between 5 and 40 degrees North.

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The supporting ground- based and airborne measurements both include optical observations as well as direct sampling. The airborne measurements will be planned so as to fly preferably under shuttle orbits. The co-location and simultaneity of shuttle, aircraft and ground-based correlated data will enable the validation of the remote space borne observations.

The roles of the astronaut will be to observe the underlying terrain and identify dust plumes, their location and their extent. He will direct the cameras to a selected ground location and attitude and carry out measurement sequences, when flying over dust plumes, over the airplane or over selected ground observation sites. The cameras are pre- flight calibrated and during the sixteen-day mission two Moon- as well as a series of vicarious ground calibrations will be carried out. On the return of the instrument to the ground after landing another calibration will be carried out.

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In order to maximize the scientific output from the mission aboard the Space Shuttle, several secondary goals were set up.

These include measurements of the reflective properties of the earth。ヌs surface, when there are neither clouds nor aerosols in the region of interest. Secondly, measurements of the slant visibility through the atmosphere will be made by the astronauts, using a set of designated targets at which ground- based measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere are available. These will lead to a phenomenological model of slant visibility of the atmosphere.

Finally, the instrument will also operate at night when spectral observations of Sprites above the tops of thunderclouds will be carried out over four regions of interest- North America, South America, Africa and South East Asia, including the island archipelagos. Again, the actual measurements will be carried out by the astronauts.

A large number of international scientific collaborations has been set up in the context of this experiment.

The initial part of the scientific planning and the actual construction, integration, calibration and installation of the various instruments has been completed.

A series of simulations, including full- scale ones, is now in progress.

It is clear that the scientific harvest will begin mostly after the completion of the flight. We are looking forward to the actual experiment during May and June 2002 and to receiving the data.

List of Team Members

Prof. Joachim H. Joseph (PI). Prof. Zev Levin.(PI), Prof. Yuri Mekler (Co PI)

Colonel Ilan Ramon ( Astronaut)

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Prof. Eliezer Ganor (In-situ Sampling and Analysis), Dr. Adam D. Devir ( MEIDEX Payload Manager), Dr. Peter Israelevitch ( Shuttle Trajectorial Analysis, Remote Sensing), Dr. Yoram Noter ( Safety and Mechanical Engineering), Dr. Yoav Yair ( MEIDEX Project Coordinator, Sprites), Dr. Baruch Ziv ( Meteorological Forecasts), Mr. Ilan Koren (Remote Sensing), Mr. Edmund Klodzh (Remote Sensing), Mr. David Shtibelman ( Airplane Payload Manager, Electronics Engineering), Mr. Amit Teller ( Airplane Experiment Coordinator, In-situ Sampling and Analysis).

المقال يعبر عن رأي الكاتب ولايعبر بالضرورة عن رأي الطليعة نيوز

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